What is Paint and its Composition?

What is Paint and its Composition?

Paint is a type of a covering material or coating which is applied over a metallic or non-metallic surface for desired appearance and also to protect the surface from corrosion or any other hazardous substances. Paint, in other words, is a pigmented fluid, liquefiable composition that converts into a solid film after its application on a surface.

At the time of storing, selling and application of paint colour on the surface, it remains liquid but most of them dries to solid. These paints can be Oil-based or Water-based.

Paint is made up of four main ingredients such as:

  • Binder,
  • Solvent,
  • Pigment, and
  • Additives


Binders are polymers or resins which form a film on the substrate surface which helps in adhesion of the paint to substrate surface. It also keeps pigment particles together. Some famous binders that are used in paint, are:

  • Alkyd Resins
  • Acrylic Resins
  • Latex
  • Phenolic Resins
  • Urethane Resins
  • Epoxy Resins
  • Chlorinated Rubber


 Solvent is a medium in the paint which helps binders, pigment and additives to disperse in molecular form or in form of colloidal dispersions. Solvents or thinners are used to modify the viscosity of the paint to improve its workability. Once the solvent evaporates from the paint, it forms a solid coating.

Some famous solvents that are used in paint, are:

  • Water
  • White Spirits
  • Xylene
  • Toluene
  • Alcohols
  • Ketones


Pigment is a solid substance which gets dispersed throughout the coating to give it a colour, denseness to hide the substrate layer. Pigments are used to protect the substrate layer from harmful UV rays.

Pigments are also used to increase gloss level of paint and to improve its durability and reduce ductility.

Some famous Pigment that are used in paint are:

  • Titanium Oxide (TiO2)
  • Zinc Oxide (ZnO)
  • Zinc Yellow
  • Yellow Dyes
  • Benzidine Yellows
  • Chrome Oxide Green


Additives are chemical compounds added to the paint to give it some desired effects. It is generally added in very less quantity. For instance, when driers are added to the paint, they accelerate drying of the paint by catalysing oxidation of the binder.

Some famous Additives that are used in paint are:

  • Plasticisers
  • Fungicides, Biocides, Insecticides
  • Flow control agents
  • Defoamers
  • Emulsifiers
  • UV Stabilizers
  • Corrosion Inhibitors
  • Limestone
  • Talc

   Ingredients                          % added by weight

  • Binder :                                      60%
  • Pigment :                                   15%
  • Solvent :                                     20%
  • Additives :                                  5%

If You want check your paint thickness, Please Watch This Video.

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